The Quest for Political Stability; The Qing Dynasty and The Son of Heaven (727-731)

The Manchus
-After the Ming Dynasty fell the Manchus came into Machuria in China.
-They claimed a new dynasty called the Qing (pure) dynasty.
-The Qing dynasty ruled China from 1644 to 1911.
-Their ancestors traded with China since the Qin dynasty.
-Sometimes clashed with their neighbors over land and resources.
-Nurhaci, reigned from 1616 to 1626, unified Manchu tribes in a centeralized state, organized a powerful military and promulgated a code of laws.
-The Manchu army captured Korea and Mongolia, espelled Ming garrisons in Muchuris, and had small state invasions in China.
In 1664 they seized Beijing
in the 1680's they consolidated their hold through the empire
Manchus preserved their own ethnic and cultural identity.

Kangxi and His Reign
-Kangxi was a Confucian scholar and and enlightened ruler.
-He occasionally composed poems.
-Organized flood control and irrigation projects.
He applied Confucian philosophy into his governing (DL)
He took care of the welfare of his subjects (DL)
He conquered Taiwan which is where the Ming loyalists had retreated to after being expelled.
He helped project chinese influence into central asia.
His grandson was Qianlong who continued his expansion of influence.
Vietnam, Burma, Nepal also came under Qing control.
Qianlong and His Reign
-He was a sophisticated man.
-He wrote more than 100,000 poems.
-Qianlong canceled tax collections on 4 seperate occasions.
His reign marked height of the dynasty.
At the end of his rule he spent less time ruling and more focusing on his favorite eunuchs.
This led to his successors continued this practice and casued great problems within the dynasty.

The Son of Heaven
-The emporer was not quite a god, but was considered more than mortal.
-Chinese tradition said that the "Son of Heaven" had heavenly powers to maintain order on earth.
-Lived in the Forbidden City, and had a privileged life.
-His daily activities were careful performances in inspections, banquets, audiences, and other offical duties.
Subjects needed to do kowtow, 3 kneelings and 9 head knockings, to the emperor
Emporers had 1000's of eunuchs looking after their needs.
Even minor offenses to an emporer could have severe punishments.

The Scholar-Bureacurats
-They were well educated and highly literate.
-Earned academic degrees by passing civil service examinations.
-Exam preparations started at an early age.
To become one, some had memorized several thousands of character by the age of 12 (DL)
They govern the day to day affairs of the kingdom (DL)
Were only open to males.

Civil Service Examinations
-Exams had many tests administered at the district, provinceial and metropolitan levels.
-Took in a certian amount to take the exam.
-Candidates had to bring their own supplies to the exams.
-The candidates were searched for other materials and they got their identities verified.
Some examinees even died during the tests (DL)
There were no other requirement besides being male to take the exam (DL)
Exams lasted 3 days and 2 nights all spent writing the 8 legged essays.
There was no communication between candidates.
The Examination System and Chinses Society
-Competition was hard.
-In the Qing dynasty their were 1 million degree holders and they compted for 20,000 civil services.
-If they only passed the district exam then they had fewer bureaucratic emploment opprotunites.
-If they passed the metropolitan exam then they could look foward to powerful positons.
It made it possible for people to go up in social class (DL)
Those who didn't get bureaucratic jobs became local school teachers, tutors.
exam system encouraged the pursuit of education.
the exams guarenteed confucian classics and neo confucianism would be at the heart of the education system.