Group 1 - Renaissance Project

Chapter 1 Section 1 Outline

Humanism: An intellectual movement at the heart of the Renaissance that focused on the education and the classics.
Humanities: The study of using language effectively.
Petrarch: A Florentine who lived in the 1300's,was an early Renaissance humanist, poet, and scholar.
Florence: A city in the Tuscany region of the northern Italy that was the center of the Italian Renaissance.
Patron: A Financial Supporter.

Leonardo: Italian Reniassance polymath; Painter, sculptor, architect, musician, scientist, mathamatician, inventor, and writer.

Michelangelo: Sculptor, engineer, painter, architect, and poet.

Raphael: Widely admired both for his artistic talent and his good nature.

Perspective: Artistic technique used to give paintings a three-dimensional effect.

Baldassare Castiglione:Well-mannered aristocrat who mastered many fileds from poetry to music to sports.

Niccolo Machiavelli:Straight forward book writer who wrote books for rulers on how to gain and maintain power.
Checkpoint Questions
What were the main characteristics of the Renaissance?
Creativity, adventure, curiosity, intellectual movement, and education.
Why was Italy a favorable settling for the Renaissance?
Encourages trade with well-developed markets on the eastern Mediterranean and in northern Africa, and Europe.
How were Renaissance ideals reflected in the arts?
They moved away from religious paintings and norms, using people with emotions reflected in their faces and a look out philosophy instead of hell.
How did Renaissance writings express realism?
Giving more about their times paintings of events, architecture and rebellion against the monarchy and church.

Chapter 1 Section 3 Outline

Indulgences: A lessening of the time a soul would have to spend in purgatory, a place where souls too impure to enter to heaven atoned for sins committed during their lifetime
Martin Luther: A German monk and theology professor who triggered the revolt in 1517
Wittenberg: A city in northern Germany, where Luther drew up his 95 theses
Charles V: The Holy Roman emperor who summoned Luther to e diet at the city of Worms
Diet: Assembly or legislature
John Calvin: A reformer who profoundly affected the direction of the Reformation
Predestination: Calvinist belief that God long ago determined who would gain salvation
Geneva: Swiss city-state which became a Calvinist theocracy in the 1500s; today a major city in Switzerland
Theocracy: Government run by religious leaders
Checkpoint Questions
What factors set the stage for the Protestant Reformation?
Churches started selling indulgences and many Christians protested so it could go back to the simple ways of the early church. Protests became more serious and people started launching systematic attacks.
How did Luther’s teaching affect people and society in northern Europe?
Luther’s teachings affected people and society because they now had to chose which religion to follow, Catholic or Lutheran, and also caused protests in the community.
How were Calvin’s Ideas put into practice?
Calvin’s ideas were put into use by setting up a theocracy in Geneva where the government was run by church leaders and citizens faced fine and other punishments for committing offenses (fighting, swearing, laughing in church, or dancing) and he created what seamed like a model community.

Chapter 1 Section 4 Outline

Sect: Religious groups broken off from an established Church
Henry VIII: Responsible for a break from the Catholic Church
Mary Tudor: Henry VIII's only surviving child
Thomas Cranmer: Appointed archbishop to anull (cancel) King Henry VIII's marriage in order to allow King Henry VIII to wed a young woman in hopes of her birthing a son to become his male heir (Since his current wife only gave him a daughter)
Elizabeth: King Henry VIII and the young woman, Anne's daughter
Canonize: To be recognized as a saint
Compromise: An agreement or settable middle ground
Council of Trent: Group appointed to establish a direction for the Catholic Church Reformation
Ignatius of Loyola: Crusader who began a new religious order, "The Society of Jesus", or "Jesuits"
Teresa of Avila: Established her own, more strict, convent (nunnery); was later recognized and asked to reform Spanish convents and monasteries
Ghetto: Quarter of the city that Jews in Venice, Italy, were ordered to live in
Checkpoint Questions
✔ Who were Anabaptists?
A protestant sect that rejected infants because they believed they were too young to understand the Christian faith.
✔Why was the Church of England Established?
Queen Elizabeth had to determine the future Church of England and decided to settle on a compromise between Protestant and Catholic practices.
✔What was the outcome of the Catholic Reformation?
In Catholic Europe charity flourished and church abuses were reduced. Catholic and Protestant views led to war and heated arguments about the government.

Chapter 1 Section 5 Outline

Nicholaus Copernicus: A polish scholar who proposed the heliocentric model of the universe
Heliocentric: Sun-centered model of the universe
Tycho Brahe: A Danish astronomer who provided evidence that supported Copernicus's theory by observing the sky every night
Johannes Kepler: A German astronomer and mathematician who used Brahe’s data to calculate orbits of the planets revolving around the sun
Galileo: He assembled an astronomical telescope and helped prove Copernicus correct
Francis Bacon:
René Descartes:
Scientific Method:
Robert Boyle: A English chemist, who refined the alchemists view of chemicals as a basic building block.
Isaac Newton: An English scientist who formed a theory of how planets moved using gravity
Gravity: The force that keeps planets in orbit
Calculus: A branch of mathematics partially developed by Newton to explain his Laws
Checkpoint Questions
Why was Copernicus's theory seen as radical?
Experts at the time saw his theory as radical because it went against Ptolemy’s reasoning that the earth was the center of the universe and that made them think that the whole system of human knowledge might be wrong and called into question.
How did Bacon and Descartes each approach the new scientific method?

How did Boyle transform the science of chemistry?
He explained that chemicals were just small elements mixed together to form different substances.
✔How did Newton use observations of nature to explain the movements of the planets?
All of nature follows the same uniform laws; all motion can be measured and described