Dawn of the Industrial Age (246-249) and Britain Leads the Way (250-253)

Section 1
A. Terms, People, Places
1. Anesthetic- drug that prevents pain during surgery.
2. Enclosure- the process of taking over and consolidating land formerly shared by peasant farmers. Jameswatt.jpg
3. James Watt- improved the steam engine.
4. Smelt- separates iron from its ore.external image jamesWatt.jpg

Life Changes as Industry Spreads
In 1750, people worked the land, using handmade tools. Life was much simpler with people making their own clothing and growing their own food. By the 1850s, the rural way of life began to disappear while cities and towns were growing instead of villages. People were no longer making their own supplies. They were able to buy clothing and food someone else produced. New inventions grew rapidly with the telegraph and the anesthetic drug.
Q: Why was the industrial Revolution a turning point in world history?
A: It changed the way of life by allowing people to interact and buying other peoples products which made life much easier.

Agriculture Spurs Industry
With the Industrial Revolution, new mechanical devices made it so farmers could easily produced better quality and quantity. With the help of Lord Charles Townshend and Jethro Tull, they made the seed drill, which deposited seeds in rows rather than scattering them wastefully over the land. Wealthier land owners used enclosure to gain more land for sheep to increase wool output. Large fields needed fewer workers which left farm laborers with no job. These jobless farm workers were forced to migrate to cities and towns to work in factories. The population in Britain soared from 5 million in 1700 to almost 9 million in 1800 because a surplus of food led to healthier, longer living people.
Q: How did an agriculture revolution contribute to population growth?
A: More food, so less people died early on in their life.
New Technology Becomes Key
In 1712 British inventor Thomas Newcome had developed a steam engine. Coal became a vital power source, used to power the seam engine. When the steam engine was improved by James Watt it opened doors to powering locomotives and steamships. Coal was also a source of fuel to produce iron, which was needed to make the steam engine. Abraham Darby then created a method of smelt ironing which was less expensive and better quality to make the parts of the steam engine. external image Steamengine.jpgSteamengine.jpg
Q: What new technologies helped trigger the Industrial Revolution?
A: The steam engine and quality of iron because of smelting.

Practice Packet
5. The gradual change in the way people lived and worked best describes the Industrial Revolution.
6. The Industrial Revolution began in Britain.
7. Charles Townshend and Jethro Tull were developers of new agricultural techniques.
8.The improved way of agriculture contributed to the population growth by created a surplus of food.
9. The enclosure affect Britain farmers because British farmers lost their farms and had to move to the city.
10. High quality iron was used to make railroads.

Section 2
1. Capital- money used to invest
2. Putting-out system- Cottage industry in which raw cotton is distributed to peasant families who spun it into thread and then wove the thread into cloth in their own homes.
3. Entrepreneur- someone who assumes the risk of starting a business
4. Enterprise- a type of business organization
5. Eli Whitney- invented the cotton gin

Why Britain?
Britain led the way in the Industrial Revolution because of many factors. One of these factors was that Britain had plentiful natural resources such as ports and rivers that were easy to navigate on. Rivers allowed for construction of canals which increased ability to trade. Due to the easy access on the rivers, Britain could cheaply transport goods. Britain also had plenty of coal which was used to power to steam engines. Also the large supply of iron helped because it was used to build the new machines. Britain had many skilled mechanics which helped in the large demand of goods. However money was needed to keep the goods coming and also to start new businesses. Because of the good trade network Britain's economy was growing. Then the business class accumulated capital because of all the trade, and many people risked their capital in new ideas. Britain's stable government supported the economic growth, and also built a strong navy to protect the empire and overseas trade.
Q: What conditions in Britain paved the way for the Industrial Revolution?
A: The plentiful rivers that provided trade routes, large supply of coal and iron, good economy, and stable government.

The Textile Industry Advances
Britain's largest industry was textiles so that was what the Revolution took hold in. The putting-out system was developed to organize the cotton cloth industry although the production was slow. The demand for cloth grew so new inventions arose to make the production process go faster. John Kay helped by inventing the flying shuttle which made weavers able to work much faster. Also James Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny in 1764 which spun many threads at the same time. The fact that spinning machines had helped to production increase so much, the problem of having enough cotton arose. Eli Whitney soon solved this problem by inventing the cotton gin that separated the seeds from the raw cotton at a fast rate. The new machines doomed the putting-out system. The machines were so large that separate houses had to be built to house the machines. The workers would come into the houses to run the machines daily to the production increased rapidly.

Q: What led to the advancement of the British textile industry?
A: The inventions of the spinning jenny to increase rate of cotton spun and then also the production of cotton increase when the cotton gin was invented.

The Transportation Revolution
Since the production of textiles grew, a faster way of transportation of goods was needed. Some turnpikes were invented which entrepreneurs invented and charged people who wanted to use them. Soon turnpikes were in every part of Britain. Bridges were also built to run over rivers, and even canals were dug to connect to rivers. Factories soon needed an inexpensive way to receive coal so when the Bridgewater canal opened it was a huge success. The canal made a profit from toll and also cut in half the price of coal. Many canals were then built in hope of the same sucess. When steam locomotives made canals loose their importance, railroads were needed to have a new preferred form of transportation. The growth of railroads boomed becase they could run places rivers could not and soon railroads reached across Britain, Europe, and North America. The prices of these fell because so much quanity was being made because of the new machines. Once things were more affordable it created more consumers who fed the demand for goods.
railroad.jpgQ: Why was the development of railroads important to industrialization?
A: The railroads could go places that rivers could not so factory owners could ship goods swiftly and cheaply over land.

Practice Packet
6. The industrial Revolution began in Britain for these two reasons, They had plentiful natural resources ad easy access to the sea.
7. Labor and capital combined to create the Industrial Revolution by having capital being invested in factories that employed the workforce.
8. The effect of the new machine technology ended the putting-out system
9. The flying shuttle and spinning jenny were technological advances in the textile industry.
10. In transportation, steam power was used to operate locomotives.

-ABC Cleo
-World History Textbook