China and India: Two Giants of Asia - Latin America Builds Democracy
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Terms:
Deng Xiaoping - Moderate and practical reformer after Mao Zedong's death in 1976.
Tiananmen Square - A huge public plaza at the center of China's capital, Beijing.
One-Child Policy - Government plan to slow population growth. Under this policy, urban families can have one child and rural families are allowed two.
Kolkata - A city in India, also known as Calcutta.
Mumbai - A city in India, also known as Bombay.
Dalits - The lowest caste, or social class.

China Reforms its Economy but Limits Freedom
-Mao Zedong died in 1976. Shortly after his death, more moderate leaders took control.
-In 1981, Deng Xiaoping was in power. He was more interested in improving the economy than in political purity.
Modernizing the Economy
The Four Modernizations:
1. Agriculture
2. Industry
3. Science
4. Defense
-This plan allowed some features of a free market. Communes, or collectively owned farms, were dismantled. Peasants were allotted farmland, but still did not own the land, and the government took a share of their crops.
-Unlike other leaders, Deng welcomed foreign capital and technology.
Original photo from the 1989 Tiananmen Square Massacre
Original photo from the 1989 Tiananmen Square Massacre

-Economic reforms brought a surge of growth, but caused a growing regional gap to develop between rural farmers and wealthy city dwellers
Communists Crack Down
-In the late 1980s, Chinese students, workers, and others supported a democracy movement, but Deng and other communists refused to allow democratic reforms
Tiananmen Square Massacre - Thousands of demonstrators gathered in a huge public plaza in the center of China's capital and raised banners calling for democracy. When they refused to disperse, the government sent in troops and tanks. Thousands were killed or wounded.
China Faces Continuing Challenges
-By 2000, China's economy was the world's second largest economy after the United States.
Limiting a Huge Population
-China's population is now the largest in the world, at 1.3 billion people.
-To help slow population growth, China instilled the One-Child Policy, which limits urban families to one child, and rural families to two children.
Economic Growth Brings New Problems
-Many state-run industries in China were unprofitable. The government sold some off, but were hesitant to do away with others.
-Rapid urbanization occurred as millions of rural workers came to the cities. Many of these newcomers lived in poverty and put a strain on limited resources.
-The government favored wealthy people with connections.
-Economic growth led to severely polluted air and water, causing illness and death. AIDS became a serious new health problem across China due to growing travel and trade.
Human Rights Suffer
-The Communist Party continued to jail critics and reject calls for political reform.
-The people pointed to issues like lack of free speech and use of prison labor to produce cheap export goods.
-Outsiders and China's trade partners pressured China to end these abuses, but the Party leaders denied these pleas.

India Builds its Economy
-Since its independence in 1947, India has become the world's second largest democracy with a population of about 1.1 billion.
Agriculture and Industry Expand
-The government adopted elements of a command economy, using five-year plans to achieve goals. Development, however, was uneven.
-India lacked oil and natural gas, and had to rely on costly imported oil.
Green Revolution - Late 1960s. New seeds, chemical fertilizers, and irrigation methods improved output. Only farmers with enough land and money could afford these improvements, though.
-In the 1980s, India began to shift toward a free-market system. It privatized some industries and eased some restrictions on foreign investments. By the 1990s, textiles, technology, and other industries were expanding rapidly.
Combating Population Growth and Poverty
-Quick population growth hurt efforts to improve living standards. Food input has risen, but so has demand.
-More than one third of the population lives below the poverty line.
-Growing populations strained India's healthcare system, especially after the spread of AIDs after 1990.
-The population boom and Green Revolutionexternal image castoutcaste.bmp caused millions from rural areas to migrate to cities. Overcrowded cities could not support everybody.
Reforming Indian Society
Confronting Caste Discrimination
-India's constitution banned discrimination against people in the lowest caste, or dalits. The government set aside jobs and places in universities for them.
-Prejudice and discrimination are still present. Hindus in the higher-castes receive better schooling and jobs in general. Sometimes they even block government plans to open more jobs to dalits.
Women Make Progress
-India's constitution granted women equal rights. Well-to-do girls are educated. Some have even entered professions or won political office.
-On the flipside, girls from poor families rarely receive any education. In rural areas, women are expected to do unpaid - but valuable - work in household industries or farms.


Section 4
Latin America Builds Democracy
Terms:
Import Substitution - Manufacturing goods locally to replace imports
Agribusinesses - Giant commercial farms
Liberation Theology - urged the church to become a force for reform
Organization of American States (OAS) - A group formed in 1948 to promote democracy, economic cooperation, and human rights in the region Native Americans
Sandinistas - A movement of socialist rebels
Contras - guerrillas who fought the Sandinistas
Juan Peron - Nationalist president, increased governments economic role, raised wages, and backed labor unions, had great support from workers, but led to economic issues
Mother's of the Plaza de Mayo - A movement of women who protested weekly in a central plaza in the capital of Argentina against the disappearance or killing of relatives

Latin America Builds Democracy
-Most farmland owned by agri-businesses.
-Latin American countries depended greatly on cash crops, but if farmers didn't have good harvests or if demand fell it hurt the economy in a huge way.
-Government adopted the policy of import substitution, which was used primarily during the 1950s-60s, but it had mixed outcomes.
-Too costly because government had to help them to "survive".
-Instead promoted exports to generate income (cash crops or industries).
-Governments promoted opening more land for farming by clearing forests and irrigation led to environmental issues.

Latin-American Poverty
Elite controlled land, businesses, and factories, very few elite
Great gap between rich and poor
Mexico and Brazil populations grew 4X between 1930-1980 but was very hard on farmers.
Farmers worked on large estates for low wages
Land shortages drove civilians to urban area(cities)
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Road to Democracy: Military, Links With the U.S., Drugs
Democracy was difficult to achieve because of poverty and inequality
Liberals, socialists, urban workers, peasants, and catholic preists and nuns called for reform.
Military leaders imposed harsh, autocratic regimes, wanting more order
Outlawed political parties, censored press, and closed universities.
Imprisoned and executed thousands
U.S influenced Latin America and acts as regions most important investor and trading partner,and as a powerful democracy.
Latin American admired U.S. wealth.
In Latin America during the Cold War, U.S. backed anti-communist dictators.
The U.S. also intervened military, sending equipment, supplies, trainers
Ronald Reagan backed contras.
Illegal drug use in the U.S. grew, the government declared a "war on drugs" in the 1980s. President Manuel Noriega was arrested by U.S. forces for drug trafficking.
The U.S. government also stopped illegal drugs from being smuggled from Columbia, Peru, Bolivia and other countries. The U.S. government also pressed Latin American countries to destroy drug crops and crush drug cartels, and gangs smuggling drugs. The countries lashed back at the U.S. saying that the whole problem was the high demand for illegal drugs in the U.S.
From 1960-1990s, rebels in Guatemala fought a series of military regimies. Guatemala's indigenous had tens of thousands of native Americans slaughtered.
an Archbishop Oscar Romero of El Salvador preached liberation theology until he was assainated in 1980. A brutal Civil war broke out until the rebels and military agreed to UN-brokered peace in 1991.
In Mexico pressure grew for political reform. The long standing dominating party, the Institutional Revolutionary Party(PRI) didn't like the effort for reforms.
In 2000, Vincente Fox was elected President ending the PRI's power.
U.S. used economic pressure and threat of Military action to restore Haiti's elected president.
Pressure from democracy activists to restore democracy.
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Argentina and Democratic Struggles
Argentina had great/stable economy, "robust economy", in early 1900's until the Great Depression hit.
Juan Peron increased governments economic role, raised wages, great support from workers, and backed labor unions, but led to economic issues.
Argentina's military waged a "dirty war" of torture and murder against its own citizens. Over 20,000 people were kidnapped by the government and disappeared. In Buenos Aries, the capital of Argentina, women marched silently holding pictures of their sons and daughters. These women became known as the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo.
In 1983 failed policies lost the war in Britain over the Falkland Islands forced the military to restore civillian rule and allow elections.
In 2001 a financial crisis devastated Argentina's economy which brought poverty.
Argentina's democracy recovered the crisis in 2003.