Changing Attitudes and Values (312-318)

By: Breanna Rotherham, Yancey Jensen, Kenneth Pillow, Dustin Kaiser

Terms and Definitions:
Cult of domesticity - idealized women and the home
temperance movement - a campaign to limit or ban the use of alcoholic beverages
Elizabeth Cady Stanton - crusaded against slavery before organizing a movement for women's rights, with Lucretia Mott and Susan B. Anthony
Women's suffrage - women's rights to vote
Sojourner Truth - an African American suffragist
John Dalton - English Quaker schoolteacher that developed modern atomic theory.
Charles Darwin - British naturalist
racism - the unscientific belief that one racial group is superior to another
social gospel - a movement that urged Christians to social service

A New Social Order Arises
The Industrial Revolutions impact in the western world changed the social classes. Before the Industrial Revolution the main social classes were nobles and peasants. Middle class consisted of merchants, artisans, and lawyers. But, the Industrial Revolution challenged these classes, and later would change them into more a more complex classification system.
Along with the Industrial Revolution came change. The division of labor between wife and husband changed, along with
Western Europe's social classes:
  • The upper social class consisted of very rich business families. The upper class's population took up little of Europe's population.
  • The middle class now pertained to mid-level business people and professionals like doctors and scientists.
  • The lower middle class contained teachers and work officers.
  • Workers and peasants, the lowest classification, consisted of much of Europe's population.

Middle-Class Tastes and Values
  • A strict code of etiquette governed their social behavior. They followed rules on how to dress for every occasion, how to give a dinner party, how to pay a social call, when and how to write letters, how long to mourn dead relatives.
  • Children were constantly supervised by parents. The saying, "seen but not heard" dictated the childs behaviors.
  • A small middle-class household was expected to at least have a cook and a housemaid.
The Ideal Home
  • Division of labor between wife and husband changed.
  • Before, middle-class women would help run family businesses out of the home. But later in the 1800s, a successful husband was one who could have a job that supplied the family with enough money so the wife could stay at home throughout the day.
  • Lower class women usually worked as domestic servants.

Women Work for Rights
In the late 1800s, women were very deprived of rights. They were overly controlled by men, usually their significant other, and had almost no protection under the law. In addition to this discrimination against females, many other things were happening to them:
  • Some individual women and women's groups protested restrictions on women.
  • Politically active women campaigned for fairness in marriage, divorce, and property laws.
  • Women's groups supported the Temperance Movement, which was a campaign to limit or ban the use of alcoholic beverages.
  • In the United States and Europe, women could not vote.
  • Women were banned from most schools and rarely had any protection under the law.
  • The husband controlled all of the women's property, so, what's hers was his.

Early Voices
  • Before 1850, some women, mostly middle-class, campaigned for the abolition of slavery.
  • Susan B. Anthony, Lucretia Mott, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton campaigned against slavery before organizing a movement for women's rights.
The Suffrage Struggle
  • By the late 1800s, married women in some countries had won the right to control their own property.
  • Women fought for more political rights, but it was very difficult to succeed and gain their rights.
  • The Seneca Fally Convention of 1848 in the United States granted women the right to vote.
  • Little men supported women suffrage, but those who did were usually liberals and socialists.

Growth of Public Education
By the late 1800s, most schools were required to give education to all children. They were required to teach reading, writing, and arithmetic.
  • Schools taught punctuality, obedience to authority, disciplined work habits, and patriotism.
  • European schools mainly taught basic religious education.

Public Education Improves
  • Most teachers had little schooling.
  • In rural areas, students attended school only when not needed in the fields.
  • Usually only middle-class families could afford to send their sons to school.
  • Education for girls did not include subjects such as science, mathematics, or physical education.

Higher Education Expands
  • Most university students were sons of middle- or upper-class families.
  • By the 1840s some small colleges for women opened.

Science Takes New Directions
Atomic Theory Develops
  • In the early 1800s, John Dalton developed modern atomic theory.
  • Dalton showed that each element is composed of its own kind of atom.
  • Dalton also showed how different kinds of atoms combine to make all chemical substances.

Debating the Earth's Age
  • Archaeology and geology challenged much of their current beliefs.

Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection
  • 1859, Charles Darwin published On the Origins of Species.

Social Darwinism and Racism
  • Applying the idea of survival of the fittest to war and economic competition came to be known as Social Darwinism.
  • Social Darwinism encouraged racism.
  • By the late 1800s, many Europeans and Americans claimed that the success of Western civilization was due to the supremacy of the white race.

Religion in an Urban Age
Even though new scientific discoveries had been, religion was still a main force in Western society. Christian churches and Jewish synagogues remained at the center of communities. Religious leaders influenced political, social, and educational developments.
  • Christian labor unions and political parties pushed for reforms.
  • Individuals, church groups, and Jewish organizations tried to help the working poor.
  • Catholic priests and nuns set up schools and hospitals in urban slums.

Checkpoint Questions
1. How had the social order changed by the 1800s?
What changed the most was who was classified in which social class. Also women started standing up for their individual rights AS women more frequently.

2. What were the arguments against women's suffrage?
Men mostly didn't like the idea of women suffrage because they believed that women should stay at home and take care of children and the home.

3. Why did more children attend school in the late 1800s than before?
Girls were allowed in some schools, and before the Industrial Revolution, usually only middle-class family could afford to send their sons to school.

4. How did science begin to challenge existing beliefs in the late 1800s?
Charles Darwin's discoveries led to Social Darwinism, which eventually led to racism. Plus John Dalton discovered a lot about atoms and elements.

5. How did religious groups respond to the challenges of industrialization?
They started helping out the poor a lot more and pushed for more housing, health care, and education for those who couldn't necessarily afford it.

Questions To Packet
1. The author of the book On the Origin of Species was Charles Darwin.
2. An idea known as the social gospel urged Christians to get involved in social service.
3. The belief that one racial group is superior to others, or racism, influenced many Europeans and Americans in the late 1800s.
4. The temperance movement was a campaign to limit or ban the use of alcoholic beverages.
5. The Seneca Falls Convention of 1848 focused on women's suffrage.

6. The three social classes in Western Europe by the late 1800s were:
B. the upper class, the middle class, and the workers and peasants.
7. What popular concept idealized women and the home?
A. cult of domesticity
8. What did some critics of women's suffrage claim?
C. Women were too emotional to vote responsibly.
9. Who was John Dalton?
B. a scientist
10. To explain the long, slow process of evolution Charles Darwin proposed the theory of
D. natural selection.

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